Isotopic analysis is used in a variety of fields across the sciences, such as Geology, Biology, Organic Chemistry, and Ecology.
Archaeology, which is situated between the hard natural sciences and social sciences, has adapted the techniques developed in these fields to answer both archaeological and anthropological questions that span the globe over both time and space.
“It really took off about two or three years ago, and the dry-ice effect is exciting,” says Tatiana Mercer, who runs a bar blog, Bar Chick.
“It’s brought the sense of theatre into bars, in the way that Heston Blumenthal did with restaurants.
A German chef three years ago lost his hand after a canister of liquid nitrogen exploded.
But other chefs have successfully used the chemical to great effect.Tristan Stephenson is a director of Fluid Movement, which helped pioneer molecular mixology – cocktails with a bit of wizardry.At the company’s bar, Purl, they used to make a “nitrogen martini”, which involves cooling the gin down to -40c by mixing it in a cocktail shaker that is sitting in a bucket of liquid nitrogen.One moment Gaby Scanlon was out with her friends celebrating her 18th birthday in a wine bar in Lancaster city centre, showing off the watch she’d been given.The next, she was in Lancaster Royal Infirmary, having her stomach removed.’ Celebrity chefs and barmen need to stop portraying liquid nitrogen as a good thing to use. Of course, you can’t just pop to Lakeland to buy liquid nitrogen.But there are specialist companies that advertise on the website of Caterer and Hotelkeeper, the industry magazine.But I had no idea it was potentially dangerous.” Gaby’s night out was at a pretty basic bar in the university town.Famed for its generous portions of nachos, even this hang-out has taken up the trend of liquid nitrogen, a chemical many of us will remember from childhood science lessons – being handled by a diffident teacher wearing goggles.The police and the bar owners are still trying to work out exactly what happened, and there is no suggestion that anyone has broken any laws.However, Gaby’s accident has thrown the spotlight on the increasingly sophisticated world of cocktail bars.