Janda sex 2013

However, the biggest inequality exists when you look beyond comparing only full-time workers and start looking at average weekly earnings for all employees - here women earn just over two-thirds of what men do, 8 a week less on average.The worrying trend with this gender income gap is that it has barely shifted in the last 30 years - in fact, the figure for average weekly earnings (when you look at both full and part-time workers) has gone slightly backwards since the early 1980s.

This contributes to the gender employment opportunity and pay gap in two ways: the first is the time that many women spend out of the workforce or in part-time work due to caring responsibilities; the second is the tendency for employers to favour men over women of child-bearing age when hiring or promoting.

For an employer, it is obviously easier business practice to hire a person for a position who they can reasonably assume will be around longer term, and is not likely to take six months or more away from work, or seek to work part-time or job share for extended periods.

What this graph shows is that the employment rate for men with children is incredibly high (around 90 per cent) - much higher than the overall male employment to population ratio of 68 per cent.

Moreover, that male participation rate remains pretty much the same, regardless of whether the children are young or of school age.

While 30 per cent of women work permanent part-time, only 8 per cent of men do.

A slightly higher proportion of women than men also work in casual employment, which is often part-time.

By way of contrast, only around a third of women with school age children work full-time, and under 20 per cent of those with children aged 0-5 are engaged in full-time employment.

What these graphs tell you is that, despite talk about modern families and men becoming more involved in caring responsibilities, the traditional full-time male bread winner and female caregiver model remains overwhelmingly dominant in Australia.

Specific postural changes seen in LCS include anterior pelvic tilt, increased lumbar lordosis, lateral lumbar shift, lateral leg rotation, and knee hyperextension.

If the lordosis is deep and short, then imbalance is predominantly in the pelvic muscles; if the lordosis is shallow and extends into the thoracic area, then imbalance predominates in the trunk muscles (Janda 1987).


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