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These innovations probably began in other languages and were translated into English.The resulting "luck chain letters" eventually spread worldwide, and in over four thousand generations of copying (with variation) they accumulated ways to sustain and increase circulation that challenge our understanding.For example, complementary testimonials developed, one exploiting perceived good luck, another exploiting perceived bad luck.
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John Burkhardt shared his thoughts early in the project and emailed digitized letters. Patterson has provided photocopies of many rare chain letters from his collection of "unmailable" items. Winter translated several chain letters and an entire article from French into English. Yana Van Arsdale found several Russian chain letters and articles, and translated published letters in Polish and Russian to English. Jean-Bruno Renard has sent chain letters from France and Brazil, and a bibliography of French publications.Apocryphal letters claiming divine origin circulated for centuries in Europe.After 1900, shorter more secular letters appeared in the US that promised good luck if copies were distributed and bad luck if not.These and other events in paper chain letter history are described, and hypotheses are offered to explain advances and declines in circulation, including the near extinction of luck chain letters in the new millennium.The online Paper Chain Letter Archive contains the text and documentation of over 900 chain letters.The last one I collected was almost ten years ago, in 2008.Foreign examples, clippings, obscure or foreign references, beliefs and rumors about chain letters, stories of receiving unexpected money in the mail, or other personal experiences with chain letters are welcome.These types, and their major variations, are described and analyzed for their replicative advantage.In the 1970's a luck chain letter from South America that touted a lottery winner invaded the US and was combined on one page with an indigenous chain letter. In 1979 a postscript concluding with "It Works" was added to one of these combination letters, and within a few years the progeny of this single letter had replaced all the millions of similar letters in circulation without this postscript.Anna Guigne sent a stack of chain letters and answered questions.Steve Glickman helped with microfilmed Denver Post articles at UC Boulder.