Dating sakhalin

From 1905 to 1945, Sakhalin was partitioned between Russia and Japan along the 50th N parallel.

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Russian explorers first termed the group Gilyak (also Giliaks or Giliatski).Most speak Russian today, and about 10 percent speak their indigenous Nivkh language.Nivkh is considered a language isolate, although it is grouped, for convenience, with the Paleosiberian languages.The Nivkh are considered the last surviving ethnic group able to adapt to the warmer climate and not be assimilated or squeezed out by the newcomers, hence the Nivkh isolate language.The Nivkhs have 38% Haplogroup C-M217 (Tajima 2004), a haplogroup which is also common among Koryaks, Itelmens, Tungusic peoples, and Mongols.The land the Nivkh inhabit is characterized as taiga forest with cold snow-laden winters and mild summers with sparse tree cover.Later, Qing China forced the Nivkh to pay tribute to them.For many centuries, the Nivkh were tributary to the Manchus.After the Treaty of Nerchinsk in 1689, they functioned as intermediaries between the Russians, Manchu and Japanese, also with the Ainu who were vassals of the Japanese.The Sakhalin Nivkhs populated the island during the Late Pleistocene period, when the island was connected to the Continent of Asia via the exposed Strait of Tartary.When the ice age receded, the oceans rose and the Nivkh were split into two groups.

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